Tama Leaver is writing a PhD in English, Communication and Cultural Studies at UWA entitled 'Artificialities: From Artificial Intelligence to Artificial People - Representations and Constructions of Identity and Embodiment in Contemporary Speculative Texts'. When not pondering overly long titles his research interests include cybercultures, cultural studies, science fiction and contemporary film.
Volume 9, May 2002
According to feminist critic Anne Cranny-Francis, the genre of science fiction has two distinct types. The first, 'hard' science fiction, utilises science and technology simply as a 'prop' for 'conventional stories of adventure and heroism' and adheres unproblematically to dominant, conservative constructions of meaning; the second, 'soft' science fiction, problematises some aspect of the 'everyday, from common sense' using scientific discourse to disrupt the 'normal', potentially conflicting with dominant meaning systems 2 The former has traditionally been patriarchal, conservative and invariably presents a 'boys with their toys' scenario. 3 Utilising Cranny-Francis' hard/soft dichotomy as boundary points for an analytical spectrum, the popular American science fiction televisual franchise 4 Star Trek ostensibly falls toward the harder side, often presenting a latent ideology of 'optimistic imperialism' in the guise of exploration and multiculturalism, completely in keeping with the dominant political and military discourses of the United States of America. 5 One of the high-tech 'toys' encountered by the crews of the USS Enterprise, and later the USS Voyager, is the Borg: cybernetically enhanced humanoids linked together with a single collective 'hive' mind. In the initial skirmishes with the Borg in Star Trek: The Next Generation they were represented as androgynous, but later encounters, specifically in the First Contact film and the Star Trek: Voyager (ST:V) series, dealt with cyborgs that were gendered. 6 While a textual or genre reading of the texts in question (in this case, Star Trek episodes and films) primarily focuses on the meanings and ideology 'intended' by the producers and writers, a more nuanced analysis can be constructed if audiences are, in some manner, accounted for in terms of meaning creation. In the cases where 'female' Borg are encountered, I will argue that the commercially constructed science fiction of Star Trek which is usually positioned at toward the harder end of the spectrum can, at times, be read by audiences in a softer manner; in terms of gender the audience can, at times, construct meanings from the text which challenge the dominant patriarchal hegemony rather than allying with it.
Alice Krige's character, the Borg Queen, was the first notable 'female' Borg in the Star Trek metanarrative. The characterisation was driven by the constraints on cinematic production. Since motion pictures need to appeal to a far broader audience than a television series, they necessarily present more self-contained narratives, which must reach resolution by the end of the film. The transference of the Borg from the small to large screen meant the disembodied collective of the Borg needed to be focused into a single character or group to allow a direct, immediate and resolvable conflict. Thus, the Borg Queen was created. The first image of the Borg Queen immediately presents a challenge to traditional ideas of embodied gender (and embodiment per se): she appears as only a torso and head with cybernetic implants and a metallic spine, suspended from thick black cables. The torso is lowered onto a waiting headless 'body', with which the Queen's upper section interconnects. 7 As Robert Wilson has argued, the replacement of biological elements with cybernetic implants 'evoke[s] a consciousness of dis-integration', implicitly challenging the coherence and borders of the human body. 8 The Borg Queen represents more potent a challenge than a simple implant or prosthesis would since her entire body is modularised and fragmented. Moreover, the Queen's lack of stability in terms of embodiment contrasts with the ostensibly coherent and protected white male bodies of the 'great men'-Picard and Data-that the movie glorifies. 9 The combination of the Borg Queen's fragmented body and overtly sexualised performance code her character as representative of the both seductive and inherently threatening way technologies are deployed in Star Trek: First Contact in relation to embodiment.
It is not what the Queen lacks or fragments, however, but what her character has metaphorically appropriated that creates the predominant psychological tension between the Borg and the mandatory 'hero', Captain Picard. In the opening scene of First Contact, Picard remembers when he (in an episode of Star Trek: The Next Generation) was "assimilated", essentially becoming part of the Borg collective. 10 The traumatic image that both infuriates and terrifies Picard is the memory of the Borg penetrating him as they augmented him with long cylindrical cybernetic implants. In psychoanalytic terms, the flashback reveals an appropriated phallus traumatically invading a heterosexual white male body. However, the trauma Picard experiences in not only sexual in nature. Picard's coherence as an individual in humanist terms is thrown into flux in the flashback since he is intricately and intimately linked to technology; his subjectivity can no longer even purport to maintain a dichotomy between organic and technological, challenging the very humanist ontology that Picard as Captain relies upon. Later in the film, when the Captain again confronts the Borg Queen, he is overwhelmed by a jump-cut flashback of her taunting him as a phallic drill penetrates his eye. Likewise, when the android who is trying to attain the (traditional) humanist ideal of a white male existence (often described in the series simply as "being human"), Data, is captured by the Borg and as the Queen interrogates him, she again appropriates threatening phallic imagery, 'invading' Data's body with two penetrative drills, the double phallus. For Data who is a technological creation, an android, the threat is more complex since he is ostensibly already a hybrid of technological and organic 11, but the biological and emotional play a smaller part than he would prefer. However, when the Borg Queen's new technologies reify Data's interface between the biological and technological, he is overwhelmed, at times appearing to completely subsume his usual rationality in the face of the experiencing the heightened 'pleasures of the flesh' the Borg Queen offers. Thus the Borg Queen's threat is neither exclusively technologically nor organically driven, but rather the menace derives from her explicit challenges to the normalised boundaries between technology and humanity, and the relations between those boundaries and the subjectivity of Data and Picard.
In Gender Trouble Judith Butler argues that neither 'gender' nor 'sex' is an essential property of identity, but rather that gender is a performative category which through its repeated stylised performances constitutes the idea of an ostensibly prediscursive sex. Although controversial, Butler's argument that 'gender identity might be reconceived as a personal/cultural history of received meanings' through which the various performances of gender construct ideas of biological sex is a powerful analytical framework. 12 Moreover, Butler's model of performativity is particularly empowering for cultural studies in that is implies that radical gender performances not only challenge normalised gender identity but also are a means to make visible the processes through which both gender and notions of biological sex are constituted. The Borg Queen's disruptive performativity not only challenges Data and Captain Picard's traditionally patriarchal perspective but also edges toward illuminating the artificiality of any essentialist (or humanist) conceptualisation of identity. Not only does the Borg Queen metaphorically wield phallic power, but she is also the leader, or representative head, of a powerful collective and the Borg 'drones' which she seemingly commands are almost all male (in terms of actors in the film, at least). While the Borg Queen can be read as temporarily allowing 'softer' readings of the science fictional space, challenging traditional notions of gender roles and embodiment within the 'harder' surrounding narrative of the film, the pervasive ideological conservatism of Star Trek is ultimately maintained at a narratological level in that the Queen is not only defeated but is also executed in a particularly gruesome manner with her skin and body being ripped away by powerful corrosives. Significantly, the Borg Queen's defeat is engineered by an alliance between those two males she most consistently threatened - Data and Picard - and their success reinforces the ideological status quo, the male characters conquering the technological seductress. The laboured symbolism is explicit after the Queen's death as Picard reasserts his masculinity, picking up the twitching metallic spine and head of the deceased Borg Queen and snapping the spine in two, metaphorically destroying both the appropriated phallus and the threat of technological hybridity. The Queen's radical performativity here is ideologically contained by the conservatism of the Enterprise crew and the cinematic revenge plot is neatly completed. However, the conventions of episodic television mean that later 'female' Borg in the Star Trek universe do not have to be destroyed to resolve the narrative and thus can offer a more sustained radical performativity.
The second 'female' Borg character in Star Trek first appeared in the ST:V series in a double episode called 'Scorpion'. Captain Janeway of Voyager is negotiating with the Borg en masse and a single 'drone' is needed to facilitate communication between her and the Borg. At first glance, the drone selected appears similar to the other androgynous Borg, covered in cybernetic implants, protruding appendages, and wrapped in bulbous black latex. The initial discussion between the Captain and the chosen Borg is quite revealing:
Drone: "I speak for the Borg. ... I am Seven of Nine, tertiary adjunct to unimatrix zero one, but you may call me Seven of Nine."
Janeway: "You're human, aren't you?"
Drone: "This body was assimilated eighteen years ago, it ceased to be human at that time." 13
To the Borg characters, 'being human' refers not to biological origin, but rather to a discursive construction of social identity. The way identity is constructed within the Borg collective does not differentiate between race or gender, with every member ostensibly working harmoniously toward the 'greater good' of the whole. Although the Borg were not originally written into the Star Trek series until the early 1990s, the analogy with a reactionary McCarthyist portrait of Marxist ideals is hard to miss. Thus the Borg operate as a site of 'radical performativity', conflicting with dominant, normative, American ideals of how race, class and gender should operate. The crew of Voyager respond by trying to direct the Borg to perform the 'expected' gender roles: Commander Chakotay is the first to assign a gender to Seven of Nine, ordering his subordinate to "Bring that female drone to the ready room." 14 Despite his attempts, Seven of Nine remains a site contesting the normative gender performances of those around her. The 'hard' ideological position of the overall Star Trek metanarrative thus shifts at times, or is thrown into flux, by the 'softening', challenging and destabilising radical performativity of the Borg.
Valerie Fulton has observed that any ostensibly resistant or radical character that becomes part of the ongoing crew (and cast) in Star Trek is invariably reconstructed and normalised to accept and propagate the ideology of conservative 'Federation' over and above all others, including that character's previous culture. 15 In keeping with the normalising demands of the Star Trek metanarrative, during Seven's first episode her allegiance and connection to the Borg is challenged before she can be appropriated and become part of the Voyager's crew. As Seven is attempting to pilot Voyager back to the Borg collective Chakotay 'links' to her mind in an effort to distract her:
Chakotay: "You are a human, a human individual. You remember being human."
Seven of Nine: "We are Borg."
Chakotay: "I see a young girl, a family."
Seven of Nine: "Irrelevant. Your appeal to my humanity is pointless."
Chakotay: "Listen to your human side, to yourself, to the little girl."16
The scene described has the male Commander Chakotay trying to convince Seven of her intrinsic 'humanity' and that her humanity is the inescapable and essential core of her identity. Star Trek's ideological conservatism is apparent as Chakotay's attempts to establish essentialism involve a strong appeal to both gender roles, the "little girl", and to the 'normative' heterosexual nuclear unit, "a family". When Chakotay's appeal to Seven's essential humanity fails, the crew render her unconscious with a powerful electrical shock. The means of discipline not only serves to punish Seven's resistance to normalising tendencies and sever her communications link to the Borg collective, but is all the more disturbing in the metaphoric similarity to way patients labelled as mentally disturbed have been treated by the medical profession at times during the twentieth century (medical institutions being another (re)enforcer of normalising tendencies). 17
The next episode in ST:V focuses on Seven of Nine's integration into the crew and opens with the captain asking in a possessive and patronising tone often reserved for newborn children, 'So, how's the newest addition to our family?'. 18 Seven of Nine is immediately positioned by the Captain as a wayward child, needing to be brought into line with the "family's" goals and beliefs. During the first confrontation between Janeway and Seven in the episode, Seven realises she has been disconnected and removed from the Borg Collective and demands to be returned. Janeway refuses, 'explaining' to Seven that she is free of the collective and should be pleased. Seven, however, is agitated and upset and is sedated by Voyager's doctor. A powerful framework for reading Seven of Nine is provided by feminist critic Donna Haraway who has argued that the image of the cyborg metaphorically reminds viewers that there 'is no fundamental, ontological separation in our formal knowledge of machine and organism, of technical and organic.' 19 Although Haraway's idea of who constitutes a cyborg is more encompassing than the cyborg collective in Star Trek, the argument remains that as technology becomes part of (previously exclusively organic) subjectivity, many traditional binary divisions in Western humanist thought are challenged, especially the dichotomy of nature and culture, as well as the related male/female dualism. In order to perpetuate the conservative ideology of Star Trek, the challenges to normalised meaning systems as described by Haraway must be hidden as convincingly as possible, thus Seven's dominant visual image-the black latex cybernetic body covered in prostheses and implants-must be obscured as quickly as possible. Thus, when Captain Janeway is presented with the choice of removing Seven's implants to ostensibly save her life or to respect her wishes to die with them intact, Janeway states:
This is no ordinary patient. She may have been raised by the Borg, to think like a Borg, but she's with us now and underneath all that technology she's a human being whether she's ready to accept it or not. Until she is ready, someone has to make those decisions for her.
The Voyager crew immediately attempt to place Seven into a more traditional humanist framework, trying to reconstruct the Borg into a more 'recognisable' female role and completely deny, or at least hide, her cyborg existence. 20 To some extent the normalising medical discourse within Star Trek allows an aesthetic obscuring of Seven's Borg origins: at the conclusion of the episodes the doctor says he has removed "82% of the Borg hardware" and has reconstructed Seven's body into an aesthetically "pleasing enough" image. Seven is clothed in a silver, body-hugging catsuit designed to heightening her visual 'femininity'.21
Despite her new appearance, Seven of Nine continues to confront the 'normal' social relations and gender performances of the crew and thus retains a sense of radical performativity. When Captain Janeway first decides to have Seven work with the crew, she is assigned to and overseen by Harry Kim. 22 He views her in a stereotypically gendered manner, and in a clichéd performance attempts to seduce her during their work shift:
Seven: "The light is insufficient."
Harry: "But it's relaxing, don't you think? After hours, quiet, Voyager isn't all Jeffries tubes and cargo bays, y'know. Tell you what, when we're done here I'll take you to the holodeck, we'll run the Katarian moonrise simulation, it's beautiful."
Seven: "Beauty is irrelevant unless you are trying to change the nature of our affiliation."
Harry: "What do you mean?"
Seven: "I may be new to individuality, but I am not ignorant of human behaviour. I've noticed your attempts to engage me in idle conversation and I see the ways your pupils dilate when you look at my body. [ ...] Are you in love with me ensign?"
Harry: "Well, er, no."
Seven: "Then you wish to copulate?"
Harry Kim continues to fluster in the face of Seven's directness and she states that she wishes to 'explore her humanity', and human sexuality, and commands Harry undress. He is embarrassed, uncomfortable with her directness, and after an awkward refusal, leaves. Anne Cranny-Francis suggests that a standard method in the science fiction genre is to use an 'alien' perspective to societal norms to confront the dominant, usually 'invisible' or naturalised ideology and make its operations visible. 23 Seven's encounter with Harry is an effective example of Cranny-Francis' point. Seven makes audible the usually unspoken, such as Harry's gaze directed at her body and the normalised gendered codes of 'seduction'. Furthermore, Seven is a sexually direct and (self) empowered female figure, antagonistic with the conservative gender performances of other members of the Voyager crew. Therefore, Seven's refusal to operate within the accepted ideological parameters of the dominant crew allow her, despite aesthetic changes, to retain a disruptive-at least in part - radical performativity.
Over the course of the first season that Seven of Nine is a character in ST:V, she does on some levels bow to the normalising discourse and dominant ideology of the crew. Seven ceases attempting to return to the Borg collective and begins to privilege the crew's survival over her own return to the Borg. 24 However, an episode one year after Seven's character is introduced, 'Night', shows that she does not relinquish her radical, disruptive performativity at least in terms of gender. 25 In 'Night', Tom Paris, the rebellious male 'playboy' and ship's pilot, is running a 'holodeck simulation' of an imagined 1930s science fiction series called 'Captain Proton', in which he plays the hero. Initially he takes Harry Kim along as his male sidekick, but the simulation is paused during a crisis. When it resumes, Harry is required elsewhere so Paris drags a reluctant Seven along. However, instead of offering her the role of the sidekick, he assigns her a different role:
Seven: "My designation?"
Paris: "Ah, right. You're Constance Goodheart. You're my secretary."
Paris: "Yeah, you tag along on all the missions. Now, I want you to keep the robot occupied while I save the Earth."
Paris expects Seven to play a 'traditional' female role, screaming and running, leading away the menacing robot. However, Seven's response to the robot is not to scream and run as Tom (and conservative expectations in general) would dictate, but rather she glares at the robot, raises an eyebrow as it approaches, emphatically declares "I am Borg", and proceeds to rip out the robot's mechanical innards. Paris looks dismayed and laments that Seven could at least "give it a chance". The Captain Proton scene is symbolic of Seven's continued resistance to the performative expectations of those around her. Even when Seven is positioned by those around her into the relatively disempowered role of the secretary, she responds in a decidedly disruptive manner, retaining her Borg identity and refusing to be socialised into passivity. Seven holds onto elements of radical performativity and remains disruptive to the conservative and patriarchal normalising tendencies of the Star Trek metanarrative. In terms of the spectrum derived from Cranny-Francis' terms, the 'hard' position of the overall Star Trek metanarrative at times shifts or experiences flux during those challengingly 'soft' cyborg performances, especially for those viewers who empathise with or champion Seven's ongoing modes of resistance (which, read at the episodes level, is far from futile).
Within the Star Trek multimedia franchise, constructions of identity and gender in particular are usually conservative, reflecting the broader ideological imperialism and conservatism normally associated with the American government and military. Moreover these constructions of identity are normalised to the point that they are represented as intrinsic, essential and undeniable. However, the 'female' Borg characters Seven on Nine in ST:V and the Borg Queen in First Contact are both sites where 'hard' science fiction is challenged and they can be read in a 'soft' (or, at least, 'softer') manner, disrupting the ideological and performative 'status quo' the other characters generally perpetuate and reinforce. The Borg Queen's radical performativity stems from her dis-integrated, partial body and appropriation of phallic and technological imagery and thus masculine power. While she is ultimately defeated and her appropriated phallus is severed, Seven of Nine presents a more consistent and ongoing challenge. Seven's performance and cyborg status challenge the patriarchal norm on board the starship Voyager despite her being aesthetically reconfigured by the crew in their attempts to normalise her. 26 Seven's refusal to accept a submissive 'female' role and simply 'be human' in a traditional manner is exemplified in her antagonistic responses to Harry Kim, Tom Paris and the crew in general. In Seven's case, despite the conservative production values and representations that Paramount imbues in Star Trek, the Borg character allows viewers moments of 'softer', critical reading within an otherwise predominantly normalised conservative series. Viewers are thus empowered to a certain extent to read against the grain and at times reposition 'hard' science fiction in a 'softer' location, driven by moments of flux and radical performance. Moreover, the 'softer' possibilities within ostensibly closed 'hard' science fictional context reinforce the reductiveness of any analytical system which relies on stable and rigid dichotomies and implicitly calls for more complex and dynamic means of analysis in textual, generic and broader theoretical terms.
1. The original version of this paper was completed in 1999 when Star Trek: Voyager had yet to screen season five in Australia. The following two seasons, especially in terms of Seven of Nine's relationship with Captain Janeway (the once absent and rediscovered mother figure) and Chakotay (the normalising heterosexual male love interest) had a marked impact of Seven's performativity, normalising her in certain powerful ways. I have chosen not to extend the episodes analysed past the first episode of season five to demonstrate how Seven could be read as a more radical figure up to that point . The way in which Seven's radical performativity was addressed and eventually closed off in the following seasons is certainly worthy of future analysis. I hope to write that second paper at some point, but may not get around to it. I invite other writers to do so, and would enjoy reading their efforts as they form a dialogue with theory, popular culture, Star Trek and this paper.
2. Anne Cranny-Francis, 'Feminist Futures: A Generic Study' in Kuhn, Annette. (ed.)., Alien Zone: Cultural Theory and Contemporary Science Fiction Cinema, Verso, London, 1990, pp. 220-1. It is important to note that Cranny-Francis' hard/soft distinction differs from conventional science fiction criticism in genre terms. Traditionally, 'hard' science fiction refers to stories scientifically and rationally conceivable given the science and technology used in the story, while 'soft' science fiction refers to stories which are not technologically extrapolative or where science and technology play little or no importance.
4. Star Trek is in itself difficult to describe but the term franchise seems most applicable. Star Trek began as a television series in the 1960s, was axed after two and a half seasons, but the immense cult (and now more mainstream) following provoked not only a number of popular Hollywood films (ten at last count), an animated television series plus four spin-off series (Star Trek: The Next Generation, Star Trek: Deep Space Nine, Star Trek: Voyager and now the prequel series Enterprise but also hundreds of novelisations, both popular and academically related books, 'official' and 'fan' websites and a merchandising empire.
6. The first 'individual' Borg appears in 'I, Borg', Star Trek: The Next Generation, Paramount Pictures, 1993 where 'he' is rescued by the crew of the Enterprise and is socialised into perpetuating their performances of identity.
8. Robert Rawdon Wilson, 'Cyber(body)parts: Prosthetic Consciousness' in Featherstone, Mike., and Burrows, Roger., (eds)., Cyberspace, Cyberbodies, Cyberpunk: Cultures of Technological Embodiment, Sage Publications, London, 1995, p. 251.
9. Another notable contrast between film versions of Star Trek and the television series is the focus on characters. In First Contact, there is a much stronger focus on Picard and Data. The episodic nature of Star Trek: The Next Generation (from which these characters originate) means that the focus is shared between all the regular cast members in different episodes. In the episodes the African-American characters Geordi and Worf share the focus, as do female characters Dr Beverly Crusher and Deanna Troi. It is also worth noting that Commander Riker, who within the metanarrative of Star Trek outranks Data, is not focused on so heavily in the film for a very pragmatic production-side reason: he was busy directing the film.
11. Data's skin and a few parts of his body are 'organic' in some senses. However, they do not operate in the way 'normal' human skin does. One of the Borg Queen's 'temptations' of Data is grafting on 'real' skin with the 'real' sensations that entails for human beings.
15. Valerie Fulton, 'An Other Frontier: Voyaging West With Mark Twain and Star Trek's Imperial Subject' Postmodern Culture, 4, 3, 1994, http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/pmc/text-only/issue.594/fulton-v.594, accessed 14/10/1999. Another example can be seen in the character Worf who, in both The Next Generation and Deep Space Nine allies himself with the Federation against his indigenous Klingon culture. Worf can similarly be metaphorically read as an African-American working class identity being normalised into (and giving way to) the idealised middle-class identity of the Federation.
17. Michel Foucault, Madness and Civilisation: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason, trans. Howard, Richard., London, Routledge, 1993, (Originally as Histoire de la Folie, 1961). It is worth noting that Judith Butler's model of performativity is partially derived from Foucault's model of inscription (which in turn is based on ideas from Nietzche).
20. Ironically, Seven's remaining cybernetic implants and the inherent skills they offer, which the 'normal' human crew around her lack, are one of the most over-used plot devices in the remainder of the Voyager series.
21. The 'sex appeal' of Seven of Nine became a major selling point for the series. Actor Jeri Ryan (who plays Seven) landed a number of photo shoots in high profile magazines on the basis of her character's visual appeal in the series.
26. Although having a female captain in ST:V may ostensibly challenge the patriarchal norms of Star Trek, the role of Captain overrides most non-patriarchal facets of Janeway's identity. The lineage of Captains (in terms of when the shows were aired, not narratologically dated) from Kirk, to Picard, to Sisko, to Janeway and (for now) resting on Jonathon Archer (in Enterprise), reinforce the patriarchal norms, particularly since the Captain's role within the metanarrative of Star Trek is inescapably linked to and derived from the oh-so-traditionally-masculine (and predominantly sexist) character of James T. Kirk.
Butler, Judith., Gender Trouble: Feminism and the Subversion of Identity, 1990, Routledge, New York, 1999.
Cranny-Francis, Anne., ‘Feminist Futures: A Generic Study’ in Kuhn, Annette. (ed.)., Alien Zone: Cultural Theory and Contemporary Science Fiction Cinema, Verso, London, 1990.
Fuchs, Cynthia J., ‘”Death is Irrelevant”: Cyborgs, Reproduction, and the Future of Male Hysteria’, Genders, 19, Winter 1994, 113-133.
Foucault, Michel., Madness and Civilisation: A History of Insanity in the Age of Reason, trans. Howard, Richard., London, Routledge, 1993, (Originally as Histoire de la Folie, 1961).
Fulton, Valerie., ‘An Other Frontier: Voyaging West With Mark Twain and Star Trek’s Imperial Subject’ Postmodern Culture, 4, 3, 1994, http://jefferson.village.virginia.edu/pmc/text-only/issue.594/fulton-v.594, accessed 14/10/1999.
Haraway, Donna., ‘A Manifesto for Cyborgs: Science, Technology, and Socialist Feminism in the 1980s’, Australian Feminist Studies, 4, 1987 (Originally Socialist Review, 80, 1985).
Squires, Judith., ‘Fabulous Feminist Futures and the Lure of Cyberculture’, in Dovey, John (ed.)., Fractal Dreams: New Media in Social Context, Lawrence and Wishart, London, 1996, 194-216.
Wilson, Robert Rawdon., ‘Cyber(body)parts: Prosthetic Consciousness’ in Featherstone, Mike., and Burrows, Roger., (eds)., Cyberspace, Cyberbodies, Cyberpunk: Cultures of Technological Embodiment, Sage Publications, London, 1995, 239-259.
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‘I, Borg’, Star Trek: The Next Generation, Paramount Pictures, 1993
‘Mortal Coil’, Star Trek: Voyager, Paramount Pictures, 4.6, 1998.
‘Night’, Star Trek: Voyager, Paramount Pictures, 5.1, 1999.
‘Revulsion’, Star Trek: Voyager, Paramount Pictures, 4.3, 1998.
‘Scorpion I’, Star Trek: Voyager, Paramount Pictures, 3.13, 1997.
‘Scorpion II’, Star Trek: Voyager, Paramount Pictures, 4.1, 1998.
‘The Gift’, Star Trek: Voyager, Paramount Pictures, 4.1, 1998.
‘The Best of Both Worlds I & II’, Star Trek: The Next Generation, Paramount Pictures, 1990, 1991.
Star Trek: First Contact, Paramount Pictures, 1996.